|10.||FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT AND NET DEBT|
|10.1||Financial risk management|
The Group has exposure to the following risks from its use of financial instruments: credit risk; liquidity risk; foreign currency risk; interest rate risk and equity price risk.
This note presents information about the group’s exposure to each of the aforementioned risks, the group’s objectives, policies and processes for measuring and managing risk, and the group’s management of capital. IFRS 7 requires certain disclosures by class of instrument which the group has determined as its segments.
The group’s major financial risks are mitigated in the way that it operates, firstly through diversification of geography and secondly through decentralisation of the business model. Bidcorp is an international group with operations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, South America, Middle East and various southern African countries.
Bidcorp’s philosophy has always been to empower management through a decentralised structure thereby making operational management responsible and accountable for the performance of their operations, including managing the financial risks of the operation. The operational management reports to the CEO who in turn reports to the Bidcorp board of directors. Operational management’s remuneration is based on their operation’s performance resulting in a decentralised and entrepreneurial environment.
Due to the diverse structure and decentralised management of the group, the group audit and risk committee (GARC) has implemented guidelines of acceptable practices and basic procedures to be followed by divisional and operational management. The information provided below for each financial risk has been collated for disclosure based on the manner in which the business is managed and what is believed to be useful information for stakeholders.
The overall process of risk management in the Bidcorp group, which includes the related system of control, is the responsibility of the Bidcorp board of directors. The Bidcorp GARC is governed by a charter and reports regularly to the board of directors on its activities.
The GARC’s primary risk responsibilities include:
Due to the breadth of the geographical spread of the Bidcorp operations, Bidcorp has adopted a globally relevant risk management strategy. This strategy has been communicated, and implementation thereof delegated, to the respective local management teams. Bidcorp believes using a common group framework for the management of risk creates a shared foundation from which a view of the global risk universe is developed, but embraces the locally relevant risks faced by each business. The Bidcorp group risk management policies are established to identify and analyse the risks faced by the group, to set appropriate guidance and parameters within which risks are to be reported to the Bidcorp GARC. Bidcorp continues to grow and develop a robust and constructive control environment in which all employees understand their roles and responsibilities.
Each business reports to one of five divisional audit and risk committees (DARC), which subscribes to the same philosophies and practices as the Bidcorp GARC. The DARCs report quarterly to the Bidcorp GARC. The DARCs oversee how operational management monitors compliance with the Bidcorp group policies and guidelines in respect of the financial reporting process, the system of internal control, the management of financial risks, the audit process (both internal and external) and code of ethics. The DARCs are assisted in their oversight role by Bidcorp internal audit. Internal audit undertakes both regular and ad hoc reviews of financial and operational risk management controls and procedures, the results of which are reported quarterly to the respective DARC and consolidated for quarterly reporting to the Bidcorp GARC.
Credit risk is the risk of financial loss to the group if a customer or counterparty to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations, and arises principally from the group’s receivables from customers, investments and guarantees.
The GARC has implemented a “Delegation of authority matrix” which provides guidelines to the divisions as to the level of authorisation required for various types of transactions.
The carrying amount of financial assets recorded in the financial statements, which is net of impairment losses, represents the group’s maximum exposure to credit risk after taking into account the value of any collateral obtained. The carrying values, net of impairment allowances and expected credit losses, amount to R13 390 million (2018: R13 391 million) for trade receivables (refer note 7.4 for credit risk disclosure), and R192 million (2018: R149 million) for investments (refer note 9.2).
The expected credit loss in respect of trade receivables is used to record expected impairment losses unless the group is satisfied that no recovery of the amount owing is possible; at that point, the amount which is considered irrecoverable is written off directly against the respective assets.
Impairments of investments classified at fair value through other comprehensive income or amortised cost are written off against the investment directly and an impairment allowance account is not utilised.
The group has a general credit policy of dealing with creditworthy counterparties and obtaining sufficient collateral, where appropriate, as a means of mitigating the risk of financial loss from defaults. In accordance with the decentralised structure, the operational management is responsible for implementation of credit policies to meet the above objective. This includes credit policies under which new customers are analysed for creditworthiness before the operation’s standard payment and delivery terms and conditions are offered, determining whether collateral is required, and if so the type of collateral to be obtained, and setting of credit limits for individual customers based on their references and credit ratings. Many operations in the group have a policy of taking out credit insurance to cover a portion of their risk. Operational management are also held responsible for monitoring the operations’ credit exposure.
Liquidity risk is the risk that the group will not be able to meet its financial obligations as they fall due. The group’s approach to managing liquidity is to ensure, as far as possible, that it will always have sufficient liquidity to meet its liabilities when due, under both normal and stressed conditions, without incurring unacceptable losses or risking damage to the group’s reputation.
The group manages its borrowings centrally for each of the segments. The divisions within each segment are therefore not responsible for the management of liquidity risk but rather senior management for each of these segments is responsible for implementing procedures to manage the regional liquidity risk.
The expected maturity of financial liabilities is not expected to differ from the contractual maturities as disclosed above. There were no defaults or breaches of any of the borrowing terms or conditions.
Market risk is the risk that changes in market price, such as foreign exchange rates, interest rates and equity prices will affect the group’s income or the value of its holdings of financial instruments. The objective of market risk management is to manage and control market risk exposures within acceptable parameters, while optimising the return on risk.
Foreign currency risk
Currency risk is the possibility that the group may suffer financial loss as a consequence of the depreciation in the measurement currency relative to the foreign currency prior to payment of a commitment in that foreign currency or the measurement currency strengthening prior to receiving payment in that foreign currency. The group also has translation risk arising from the consolidation of foreign operations into South African rand.
Borrowings are matched to the same foreign currency as the division raising the liability thereby limiting the divisions’ exposure to changes in a foreign currency which differs to their functional currency. Interest on borrowings is denominated in currencies that match the cash flows generated by the underlying divisions of the group thereby providing an economic hedge for each class of borrowing.
The group incurs currency risk as a result of purchases and sales which are denominated in a currency other than that entities’ functional reporting currency. It is group policy that group entities hedge all trade receivables and trade payables denominated in a foreign currency which differs to its functional currency. At any point in time the entities also take out economic hedges over their estimated foreign currency exposure resulting from sales and purchases. The group entities hedge their foreign currency risk exposure either by taking out forward exchange contracts (FECs) or alternatively by purchasing in advance the foreign currency which will be required to settle the trade payables. Most of the forward exchange contracts have maturities of less than one year after the reporting date. Where necessary, the forward exchange contracts are rolled over at maturity. It is the group’s policy not to trade in derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.
Changes in the fair value of forward exchange contracts that economically hedge monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies (in relation to the operations’ functional currency) and for which no hedge accounting is applied are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. Both the changes in fair value of the forward exchange contracts and the foreign exchange gains and losses relating to the monetary items are recognised in operating profit (refer note 4.2).
The periods in which the cash flows associated with the forward exchange contracts are expected to occur are detailed below under the heading “Settlement”. The periods in which the cash flows are expected to impact profit or loss are believed to be in the same time frame as when the actual cash flows occur.
Interest rate risk
The group is exposed to interest rate risk as it borrows funds at both fixed and floating interest rates. This risk is managed by maintaining an appropriate mix between fixed and floating borrowings and by the use of interest rate swap contracts. Investments in equity securities accounted for as held-for-trading financial assets and trade receivables and payables are not exposed to interest rate risk.
The group’s exposure to interest rates on financial assets and liabilities are detailed in the various notes within the financial statements.
The variable rates are influenced by movements in the prime borrowing rates.
Group borrowings have been categorised by geographical location and the percentage change used for each category has been selected based on what could reasonably be expected as a change in interest rates within that region based on historical movements in interest rates within that particular region.
This sensitivity analysis has been prepared using the average borrowings for the financial year as the actual borrowings at June 30 are not representative of the borrowings during the year. This analyses assumes that all other variables, in particular foreign currency rates, remain constant. The analyses are performed on the same basis as 2018. A decrease in interest rates would have an equal and opposite effect on profit after taxation as detailed below.
Equity price risk
Equity price risk arises from investments classified at fair value through profit or loss or investments classified at fair value as other comprehensive income (refer note 9.2). Unlisted investments comprise unlisted shares and loans are valued at fair value using a price earnings (PE) model. A sensitivity analysis for investments at fair value was not performed as the fair value balance is insignificant.
The carrying amounts of all financial assets and liabilities approximate their fair values, with the exception of borrowings which have been accounted for at amortised cost. The fair value of borrowings, together with the carrying amounts shown in the statement of financial position, classified by class (being geographical location), are as follows:
The methods used to estimate the fair values of financial instruments are discussed in note 3. The interest rates used to discount cash flows, in order to determine fair values, are based on market-related rates at June 30 2019 plus an adequate constant credit spread, and range from 0,0% to 30,0% (2018: 0,0% to 24,8%).
Fair value hierarchy
When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the group uses market observable data as far as possible. Fair values are categorised into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques categorised as follows.
The following table shows the carrying amounts and fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities, including their levels in the fair value hierarchy for financial instruments measured at fair value. It does not include fair value information for financial assets and financial liabilities not measured at fair value if the carrying amount is a reasonable approximation of fair value.
Valuation techniques and significant unobservable inputs
The following table shows the valuation techniques used in measuring the puttable non-controlling interests and vendors for acquisition fair values at June 30.
Finance charges comprise interest payable on borrowings calculated using the effective interest method. The interest expense component of finance lease payments is recognised in the statement of profit or loss using the effective interest method.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of assets that take a substantial period of time to prepare for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially complete or sold.
Capitalisation is suspended during extended periods in which active development is interrupted. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
|Loans secured by mortgage bonds over fixed property (refer note 7.1)||273 865||218 139|
|Loans secured by lien over certain property, plant and equipment in terms of financial leases and suspensive sale agreements (refer note 7.1)||519 768||615 019|
|Unsecured borrowings||9 707 316||8 726 327|
|Borrowings||10 500 949||9 559 485|
|Less short-term portion of borrowings||(5 841 624)||(3 489 012)|
|Long-term portion of borrowings||4 659 325||6 070 473|
|Schedule of repayment of borrowings|
|Year to June 2019||–||3 489 012|
|Year to June 2020||5 841 624||4 061 934|
|Year to June 2021||879 764||885 849|
|Year to June 2022||3 265 923||283 569|
|Year to June 2023||205 453||491 357|
|Year to June 2024||111 035||151 576|
|Thereafter||197 150||196 188|
|10 500 949||9 559 485|
|Total borrowings comprise|
|Foreign subsidiaries borrowings||9 530 328||8 633 572|
|South African subsidiary borrowings||970 621||925 913|
|10 500 949||9 559 485|
|Effective weighted average rate of interest on|
|South African borrowings excluding overdrafts||8,3%||8,0%|
|Foreign borrowings excluding overdrafts||2,6%||2,4%|
|Movement in borrowings|
|Carrying value at beginning of year||9 559 485||8 057 464|
|Borrowings raised during the year||5 135 168||5 381 256|
|Borrowings repaid during the year||(4 232 742)||(4 711 152)|
|Interest capitalised during the year||8 715||–|
|On acquisition of business||7 801||271 219|
|Currency adjustment||22 522||560 698|
|10 500 949||9 559 485|
The expected maturity dates are not expected to differ from the contractual maturity dates.
The group’s policy is to maintain a strong capital base so as to maintain investor, creditor and market confidence and to sustain future development of the business.
The principal covenant limits are net debt to EBITDA of no more than 2,5 times and interest cover of no less than 5 times (both excluding the impacts of IFRS 16). Compliance with the group’s biannual debt covenants is monitored on a monthly basis and formally tested at December 31 and June 30. During the year, all group covenants have been complied with and based on current forecasts it is expected that such covenants will continue to be complied with for the foreseeable future.
The group’s operations generate a high and consistent level of free cash flow which helps fund future development and growth. The group seeks to maintain an appropriate balance between the higher shareholder returns that may be possible with higher levels of borrowings and the prudence afforded by a sound capital position to enable the group to capitalise on growth opportunities, both internal and external. There were no changes to the group’s approach to capital management during the year and the group is not subject to any externally imposed capital requirements.